Socrates, Plato, Xenophon, Herodotus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aeschylus came into prominence, and in 432 and a plague that raged through Athens in 430 contributed to bring the Golden Age to an end.For a time Sparta dominated the Greek world, but war and severe economic decline hastened the decline of all of the city-states.The capital city, Athens, and the cities of Thessaloniki (Salonika), Patras, Volos, and Larissa have the largest populations in Greece, which has a total population of approximately ten million.
Greece's declaration of independence from the Ottoman Empire on March 25, 1821, resulted in the Greek War of Independence, which lasted until 1829, and began the history of independent modern Greece.
In 1923, under the Treaty of Lausanne, more than 1.25 million Greeks moved from Turkey to Greece, and more than 400,000 Turks in Greece moved to Turkey.
Between the World Wars, the Greek population vacillated between the establishment of a republican form of government and the restoration of monarchy.
After the war Greece regained much of the territory it had lost to the Ottoman Empire.
But in 1921 Greece began a war against the Turks in Asia Minor and suffered a crushing defeat in 1922.
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In 1936 Greece became a military dictatorship under General Ioannis Metaxas, who remained in power until 1944.